Discussions of individual white nationalist memes (icons or words that catch on and spread virally) appear in many books and news sources. George Hawley’s book, The Alt-Right: What Everyone Needs to Know has a particularly helpful introduction to white nationalist uses of visual and verbal memes and clear explanations of some of the most influential (pp. 110-18).
We discuss music here, under visual signs, because the music itself, with lyrics frequently unintelligible, is less likely to stand out initially than CD covers, posters, and band logos. Locating good discussions of “white power music” is complex because the term spreads over many genres (country, rock, metal, electronic), and because singers and bands rapidly come and go, articles on the music scene are quickly dated. Because of repeated patterns and strategies in white nationalist music, however, some older sources still provide useful information, such as the Anti-Defamation League’s The Sounds of Hate: The White Power Music Scene in the United States in 2012. Three more recent short articles by Southern Poverty Law Center are: Fashwave, the Electronic Music of the Alt-Right, is Just More Hateful Subterfuge (2017), Suspect in Church Burnings Influenced by ‘Black Metal’ Music, Police Say, But Not All Black Metal Is the Same (2019), and SPLC, Hate Music (2020).